Smart factories can be divided into five levels: infrastructure layer, intelligent equipment layer, intelligent production line layer, intelligent workshop layer and factory management layer:
1. Infrastructure layer
Enterprises should first establish a wired or wireless factory network to achieve automatic production of production instructions and automatic collection of equipment and production line information; form an integrated workshop networking environment, solve equipment between different communication protocols, and PLC, CNC, robots Networking problems between instrument/sensor and industrial control/IT system; use video surveillance system to monitor, identify and alarm the environment and personnel behavior of the workshop; in addition, the factory should control temperature, humidity, cleanliness and industrial safety ( Including the safety of industrial automation systems, the safety of production environments and personnel safety, etc., to achieve an intelligent level.
2, intelligent equipment layer
Intelligent equipment is an important means and tool for the operation of smart factories. Intelligent equipment mainly includes intelligent production equipment, intelligent detection equipment and intelligent logistics equipment. After the manufacturing equipment has gone through mechanical equipment to CNC equipment, it is gradually developing into intelligent equipment. The intelligent machining center has functions such as error compensation and temperature compensation, which can realize edge detection and edge processing. By integrating sensors such as vision and force, industrial robots can accurately identify workpieces, assemble them autonomously, automatically avoid people, and realize human-machine collaboration. Metal additive manufacturing equipment can directly manufacture parts, and DMG MORI has developed a hybrid manufacturing machining center that enables simultaneous additive manufacturing and cutting. Intelligent logistics equipment includes automated warehouses, intelligent fixtures, AGVs, truss robots, and suspended conveyor chains. For example, the Fanuc plant uses an automated warehouse as a material transfer tool between intelligent machining units.
3, intelligent production line layer
The intelligent production line is characterized by the ability to automatically collect data such as production, quality, energy consumption, equipment performance (OEE) through sensors, numerical control systems or RFID during production and assembly, and display real-time production status through electronic signage. Through the lamp system to achieve the cooperation between the processes; the production line can achieve rapid mold change, flexible automation; can support a variety of similar products of mixed line production and assembly, flexible adjustment process, to adapt to small batch, multi-variety production mode; It has certain redundancy. If there is equipment failure on the production line, it can be adjusted to other equipment production; for manual operation, it can give intelligent tips.
4, intelligent workshop layer
In order to achieve effective management and control of the production process, it is necessary to use the manufacturing execution system (MES), advanced production scheduling (APS), labor management and other software for efficient production scheduling and reasonable staff scheduling on the basis of equipment networking. Improve equipment utilization (OEE), achieve traceability of production processes, reduce in-process inventory, apply human-machine interface (HMI), and mobile terminals such as industrial flat panels to achieve paperless production processes. In addition, Digital Twin (Digital Mapping) technology can be used to display the data collected by the MES system in real time in a virtual 3D shop model, providing not only the VR (Virtual Reality) environment of the workshop, but also the actual status of the device. To achieve virtual and real integration.
The intelligence of shop floor logistics is critical to the realization of smart factories. Enterprises need to make full use of intelligent logistics equipment to achieve timely delivery of materials needed in the production process. Enterprises can use the DPS system (Digital Picking System) to automate material picking.
5, factory management layer
The factory management and control layer is mainly to realize the monitoring of the production process, real-time insight into the operation of the plant through the production command system, and realize the coordination and resource scheduling among multiple workshops. Process manufacturing companies have widely applied DCS or PLC control systems for production control. In recent years, discrete manufacturing companies have also begun to establish a central control room to display the plant's operational data and charts in real time, showing the operating status of the equipment, and can be image-receiving technology. The problem found in video surveillance is automatically alarmed.